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Benthic Habitats and the Effects of Fishing

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Peter W. Barnes and James P. Thomas, editors

890 pages, hard cover, index

Published by American Fisheries Society

Publication date: September 2005

Summary

Symposium 41

Fishery resource managers face the challenge of ensuring sustainable fisheries and maintaining healthy, diverse ecosystems. This challenge can be met by advancing the scientific knowledge available to resource managers to evaluate and appropriately manage fishing activities that affect benthic habitats. Government agencies have been working to develop benthic habitat research initiatives focused on the effects of fishing gear and the linkage between biological resources and the geology of benthic habitats.

This book provides the broad understanding of the effects of fishing activities on benthic habitats necessary to address the pressing issues of habitat alteration that challenge managers, practitioners, and ocean scientists.

Table of Contents

Symbols and Abbreviations

Introduction

Benthic Habitats and Effects of Fishing: Linking Geology, Biology, Socioeconomics, and Management in Fisheries—An Introduction James P. Thomas and Peter W. Barnes

Defining the Issues: Status, Management Needs, and Livelihoods

Keeping Our Fisheries Sustainable William T. Hogarth

The Challenge of Protecting Fish Habitat through the Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Clarence Pautzke

Challenges, Objectives, and Sustainability: Benthic Community, Habitats and Management Decision-Making Jake Rice

The Role of Scientific Advice in the Management of Benthic Fisheries in Mexico: Present Status and Perspectives Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez

Ecosystem Consequences of Bottom Fishing Disturbance Simon Jennings, Steve Freeman, Ruth Parker, Daniel E. Duplisea, and Tracy A. Dinmore

National Research Council Study on the Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat John Steele, Susan J. Roberts, Dayton L. Alverson, Peter Auster, Jeremy Collie, Joseph T. DeAlteris, Linda Deegan, Elva Escobar Briones, Stephen J. Hall, Gordon H. Kruse, Caroline Pomeroy, Kathryn M. Scanlon, and Priscilla Weeks

Destructive Fishing Practices and Evolution of the Marine Ecosystem-Based Management Paradigm Elliott A. Norse

Symposium Abstract: Approaches to EFH Management for Alaska Groundfish Fisheries that Fulfill Habitat Management Objectives and Maintain Viable Groundfish Fisheries J. R. Gauvin

Benthic Habitat Characterization and Advanced Technologies and Their Applications

Fish Habitat Studies: Combining High-Resolution Geological and Biological Data W. Waldo Wakefield, Curt E. Whitmire, Julia E. R. Clemons, and Brian N. Tissot

Benthic Habitat Mapping with Advanced Technologies and Their Application James V. Gardner and Larry A. Mayer

Characterization of Benthic Habitat on Northeastern Georges Bank, Canada Vladimir E. Kostylev, Brian J. Todd, Oddvar Longva, and Page C. Valentine

Mapping and Characterizing Subtidal Oyster Reefs Using Acoustic Techniques, Underwater Videography, and Quadrat Counts Raymond E. Grizzle, Larry G. Ward, Jamie R. Adams, Semme J. Dijkstra, and Brian Smith

Refining Estimates of Potential White Abalone Habitat at Northern Anacapa Island, California Using Acoustic Backscatter Data Guy R. Cochrane, John L. Butler, and Gary E. Davis

Using Laser Technology to Characterize Substrate Morphology and Geology of Selected Lake Trout Spawning Habitat in Northern Lake Michigan Peter W. Barnes, Guy W. Fleischer, James V. Gardner, and Kristen M. Lee

Ground-Truthing Benthic Habitat Characteristics Using Video Mosaic Images George R. Cutter, Jr., Yuri Rzhanov, Larry A. Mayer, and Raymond E. Grizzle

Advances in Processing and Collecting Multibeam Echosounder Data for Seabed Habitat Mapping Douglas Lockhart, Robert J. Pawlowski, and Edward J. Saade

Classification of Marine Sublittoral Habitats, with Application to the Northeastern North America Region Page C. Valentine, Brian J. Todd, and Vladimir E. Kostylev

Symposium Abstract: Benthic Habitat Characterization of the Grays Reef National Marine Sanctuary Using Sidescan, Multibeam, and GIS Techniques C. Alexander, G. McFall, T. Battista, and R. Bohne

Symposium Abstract: Distribution of Acoustic Backscatter Imagery from NOAA Hydrographic Surveys J. K. Brown, D. W. Pritchard, and G. T. Noll

Symposium Abstract: Mapping Seagrass Boundaries with Waveform-Resolving Lidar: A Preliminary Assessment T. D. Clayton, J. C. Brock, and C. W. Wright

Symposium Abstract: Fast-Track Methods for Assessing Trawl Impacts R. A. Coggan, C. J. Smith, R. J. A. Atkinson, K. N. Papadopoulou, T. D. I. Stevenson, P. G. Moore, and I. D. Tuck

Symposium Abstract: Using Lasers to Investigate Deepwater Habitats in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary off Central California C. B. Grimes, M. Yoklavich, W. Wakefield, and H. G. Greene

Symposium Abstract: An Assessment of Fish and Invertebrate Communities along Trans-Pacific Cable Lines: A Pilot Study with Implications for Marine Reserve Planning T. D. Hart and S. S. Heppell

Symposium Abstract: Benthic Habitat in the Gulf of Alaska: Biological Communities, Geological Habitat, and Fishing Intensity J. Heifetz, D. L. Courtney, J. T. Fujioka, H. G. Greene, P. Malecha, and R. P. Stone

Symposium Abstract: Quantitative Seafloor Habitat Classification Using GIS Terrain Analysis: Effects of Data Density, Resolution, and Scale P. Iampietro and R. Kvitek

Symposium Abstract: Sampling Macrozoobenthos from Zebra Mussel Communities in Lake Erie G. W. Kennedy, M. C. Fabrizzio, M. A. Blouin, and J. F. Savino

Symposium Abstract: Characterization of Coastal Great Lakes Benthic Habitat S. J. Lozano, M. Blouin, and N. Wattrus

Symposium Abstract: A System for Classification of Habitats in Estuarine and Marine Environments: Florida Perspective K. A. Madley

Symposium Abstract: Sea Floor Mapping on the Scotian Shelf and the Gulf of Maine: Implications for the Management of Ocean Resources R. A. Pickrill and B. J. Todd

Symposium Abstract: Seabed Classification with Multibeam Sonars for Mapping Benthic Habitat J. M. Preston, A. C. Christney, W. T. Collins, and B. D. Bornhold

Symposium Abstract: Quantitative Measures of Acoustic Diversity to Support Benthic Habitat Characterization J. M. Preston, A. C. Christney, W. T. Collins, and R. A. McConnaughey

Symposium Abstract: usSEABED: Towards Unifying Knowledge of Geologic Conrols on Benthic Habitats J. A. Reid, C. J. Jenkins, M. E. Field, M. Zimmermann, S. J. Williams, J. M. Currence, C. E. Box, and J. V. Gardner

Symposium Abstract: Fluorescence Imaging Laser Line Scan (FILLS) Imagery for High-Resolution Benthic Habitat Characterization M. P. Strand

Symposium Abstract: The Use of Field Calibrated Side-Scan Acoustic Reflectance Patterns to Quantify and Track Alterations to Benthic Habitat Associated with Louisiana’s Oyster Industry C. Wilson, H. Roberts, Y. Allen, and J. Supan

Understanding Chronic and Event-Driven Natural Change to Benthic Habitats

Living with Change: Response of the Sea Floor to Natural Events Michael E. Field

Sediment Oxygen Consumption in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico Elva Escobar and Luisa I. Falcon

Discovery of 100–160-Year-Old Iceberg Gouges and Their Relation to Halibut Habitat in Glacier Bay, Alaska Paul R. Carlson, Philip N. Hooge, and Guy R. Cochrane

Symposium Abstract: Analyzing Time-Lapse Photographs of the Sea Floor for Changes in Benthic Community Activity S. E. Beaulieu, H. Singh, and K. L. Smith, Jr.

Symposium Abstract: Fishing Effects on Habitat: The Potential Consequences of Removing such Habitat Engineers as Red Grouper Epinephelus morio F. C. Coleman, C. C. Koenig, M. W. Miller, S. A. Heppell, and K. Scanlon

Symposium Abstract: Geologic Development and Longevity of Continental Shelf Mudbelt Habitat during the Holocene in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, California E. E. Grossman, M. E. Field, and S. L. Eittreim

Symposium Abstract: Effects of Ice Gouging on Community Structure and the Abundance of Pacific Halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis: Disturbance Does Not Necessarily Mean Negative Fisheries Effects P. N. Hooge, P. R. Carlson, and G. R. Cochrane

Symposium Abstract: Biodiversity Changes in Space and Time in the Gulf of Alaska: An Ecosystem Measure of Fishing Effects on Habitat R. F. Reuter and S. Gaichas

Linking Fisheries and Supporting Ecosystems to Benthic Habitat Character and Dynamics

Linking Fisheries to Benthic Habitats at Multiple Scales: Eastern Scotian Shelf Haddock John T. Anderson, Jim E. Simon, Don C. Gordon, and Peter C. Hurley

Combining Scientific and Fisher’s Knowledge to Identify Possible Groundfish Essential Fish Habitats Melanie Bergmann, Hilmar Hinz, Robert E. Blyth, Michael J. Kaiser, Stuart I. Rogers, and Mike J. Armstrong

Delineating Juvenile Red Snapper Habitat on the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf William F. Patterson, Charles A. Wilson, Samuel J. Bentley, James H. Cowan, Tyrrell Henwood, Yvonne C. Allen, and Triniti A. Dufrene

Living Substrate in Alaska: Distribution, Abundance, and Species Associations Patrick W. Malecha, Robert P. Stone, and Jonathan Heifetz

Pockmarks on the Outer Shelf in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Gas-Release Features or Habitat Modifications by Fish? Kathryn M. Scanlon, Felicia C. Coleman, and Christopher C. Koenig

Symposium Abstract: Understanding the Complex Nature of Fish–Seagrass Associations T. J. Anderson

Symposium Abstract: Geoacoustic and Geological Characterization of Juvenile Red Snapper Habitat, Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf S. J. Bentley, W.F. Patterson, Y. Allen, W. Vienne, and C. Wilson

Symposium Abstract: Habitat Associations of Upper Slope Rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and Co-Occurring Demersal Fishes in Ascension Canyon, California J. J. Bizarro, J. M. Field, H. G. Greene, R. N. Lea, and J. deMarignac

Symposium Abstract: Data Sets Relevant to Identification of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) on the Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf and for Estimation of Effects of Shrimp Trawling Gear P. Caldwell and P. Sheridan

Symposium Abstract: Habitat and Species Associations of Demersal Fish and Benthic Invertebrates in the New York Bight Apex S. Chang, J. Vitaliano, and F. Steimle

Symposium Abstract: Fish Landings, Discards, and Benthic Material from Otter Trawling in the Western English Channel S. P. Cotterell

Symposium Abstract: Decreasing Habitat Disturbance by Improving Fish Stock Assessments: A New Method of Remote Species Identification and Quantification D. F. Doolittle, M. R. Patterson, Z.-U. Rahman, and R. Mann

Symposium Abstract: Small-Scale Analysis of Subtidal Fish Guilds and Associated Habitat Characteristics along Central California J. M. Field, M. M. Yoklavich, G. M. Caillet, S. Bros, J. deMarignac, and R. N. Lea

Symposium Abstract: The Sensitivity of Fish and Macro-Epifauna to Habitat Change: An Analytical Approach S. M. Freeman and S. I. Rogers

Symposium Abstract: Integration of Acoustic Seabed Classification and Fish Census Data for Determining Appropriate Boundaries of Marine Protected Areas A. C. R. Gleason, A. M. Ecklund, R. P. Reid, D. E. Harper, D. B. McClellan, and J. Schull

Symposium Abstract: Effects of Fishing on the Mid-Atlantic Tilefish Habitat: Restructuring a Structured Habitat V. G. Guida, P. C. Valentine, and F. Almeida

Symposium Abstract: Development of an Electronic Logbook to Assess Shrimp-Trawl Catch, Effort, and Associated Environmental Data in Areas Fished off Florida and Texas P. J. Rubec, A. Jackson, C. Ashbaugh, and S. Versaggi

Symposium Abstract: Linking Predator and Prey Species Dynamics in Deep-Water Reefs of the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico P. E. Thurman, G. Dennis, K. Sulak, and R. S. McBride

Effects of Fishing: Assessment and Recovery

Effects of Fishing on Gravel Habitats: Assessment and Recovery of Benthic Megafauna on Georges Bank Jeremy S. Collie, Jerome M. Hermsen, Page C. Valentine, and Frank P. Almeida

The Effects of Area Closures on Georges Bank Jason Link, Frank Almeida, Page Valentine, Peter Auster, Robert Reid, and Joseph Vitaliano

Effects of Fisheries on Deepwater Gorgonian Corals in the Northeast Channel, Nova Scotia Pal B. Mortensen, Lene Buhl-Mortensen, Donald C. Gordon, Jr., Gordon B. J. Fader, David L. McKeown, and Derek G. Fenton

Susceptibility of the Soft Coral Gersemia rubiformis to Capture by Hydraulic Clam Dredges off Eastern Canada: The Significance of Soft Coral–Shell Associations Kent D. Gilkinson, Donald C. Gordon, Jr., David McKeown, Dale Roddick, Ellen L. Kenchington, Kevin G. MacIsaac, Cynthia Bourbonnais, and W. Peter Vass

Effects of Experimental Otter Trawling on the Feeding of Demersal Fish on Western Bank, Nova Scotia Ellen L. Kenchington, Donald C. Gordon, Jr., Cynthia Bourbonnais, Kevin G. MacIsaac, Kent D. Gilkinison, David L. McKeown, and W. Peter Vass

Summary of the Grand Banks Otter Trawling Experiment (1993–1995): Effects on Benthic Habitat and Macrobenthic Communities Donald C. Gordon, Jr., Kent D. Gilkinson, Ellen L. Kenchington, Cynthia Bourbonnais, Kevin G. MacIsaac, David L. McKeown, and W. Peter Vass

Effects of Chronic Bottom Trawling on the Size Structure of Soft-Bottom Benthic Invertebrates Robert A. McConnaughey, Stephen E. Syrjala, and C. Braxton Dew

Effects of Commercial Otter Trawling on Benthic Communities in the Southeastern Bering Sea Eloise J. Brown, Bruce Finney, Sue Hills, and Michaela Dommisse

Effects of Bottom Trawling on Soft-Sediment Epibenthic Communities in the Gulf of Alaska Robert P. Stone, Michele M. Masuda, and Patrick W. Malecha

Biological Traits of the North Sea Benthos: Does Fishing Affect Benthic Ecosystem Function? Julie Bremner, Chris L. J. Frid, and Stuart I. Rogers

The Impact of Trawling on Benthic Nutrient Dynamics in the North Sea: Implications of Laboratory Experiments Phil Percival, Chris Frid, and Rob Upstill-Goddard

Potential Impacts of Deep-Sea Trawling on the Benthic Ecosystem along the Northern European Continental Margin: A Review John D. Gage, J. Murray Roberts, John P. Hartley, and John D. Humphery

Immediate Effects of Experimental Otter Trawling on a Sub-Arctic Benthic Assemblage inside Bear Island Fishery Protection Zone in the Barents Sea Tina Kutti, Tore Høisæter, Hans Tore Rapp, Odd-Børre Humborstad, Svein Løkkeborg, and Leif Nøttestad

Preliminary Results on the Effect of Otter Trawling on Hyperbenthic Communities in Heraklion Bay, Cretan Sea, Eastern Mediterranean Panayota T. Koulouri, Costas G. Dounas, and Anastasios Eleftheriou

The Effect of Different Types of Otter Trawl Ground Rope on Benthic Nutrient Releases and Sediment Biogeochemistry Costas G. Dounas, Ian M. Davies, Peter J. Hayes, Christos D. Arvanitidis, and Panayota T. Koulouri

Trawl Fishing Disturbance and Medium-Term Microfaunal Recolonization Dynamics: A Functional Approach to the Comparison between Sand and Mud Habitats in the Adriatic Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) Fabio Pranovi, Sasa Raicevich, Simone Libralato, Filippo Da Ponte and, Otello Giovanardi

Short-Term Effects of the Cessation of Shrimp Trawling on Texas Benthic Habitats Peter Sheridan and Jennifer Doerr

Effect of Caribbean Spiny Lobster Traps on Seagrass Beds of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary: Damage Assessment and Evaluation of Recovery Amy V. Uhrin, Mark S. Fonseca, and Gregory P. DiDomenico

Symposium Abstract: The Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas on Fish and Benthic Fauna: The Georges Bank Closed Area II Example F. Almeida, P. Valentine, R. Reid, L. Arlen, P. Auster, J. Cross, V. Guida, J. Lindholm, J. Link, D. Packer, J. Vitaliano, and A. Paulson

Symposium Abstract: The Impact of Scallop Dredging on American Lobster Homarus americanus in the Baie des Chaleurs, Canada P. Archambault and L. Gendron

Symposium Abstract: Effect of Shrimp Trawling on Snow Crab Resource in the Northern Atlantic G. Brothers and J. J. Foster

Symposium Abstract: The Impact of Oyster Dredging on Blue Cod in New Zealand G. D. Carbines

Symposium Abstract: Impacts to Coral Reef Benthos from Lobster Trap Gear in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary M. Chiappone, D. W. Swanson, and S. L. Miller

Symposium Abstract: Spatial Distribution and Benthic Impacts from Hook-and-Line Fishing Gear in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary M. Chiappone, D. W. Swanson, and S. L. Miller

Symposium Abstract: Effects of Fishing on the Benthic Habitat and Fauna of Seamounts on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand M. R. Clark, A. A. Rowden, and S. O’Shea

Symposium Abstract: Effects of Smooth Bottom Trawl Gear on Soft Bottom Habitat C. L. Cogswell, B. Hecker, A. Michael, F. Mirarchi, J. Ryther, Jr., D. Stevenson, R. Valente, and C. Wright

Symposium Abstract: Effects of 135 years of Oyster (Ostrea chilensis) Fishing on the Benthic Habitat, Associated Macrofaunal Assemblages, and Sediments of Foveaux Strait, Southern New Zealand H. J. Cranfield, K. P. Michael, G. Carbines, D. P. Gordon, B. Manighetti, A. Dunn, and A. A. Rowden

Symposium Abstract: The Theoretical and Methodological Basis of Estimations of the Human-Made Influences (Fishing and Constructing) on the Benthic Habitats V. A. Emelyanov

Symposium Abstract: Impacts of Mobile Fishing Gear on Sponges and Gorgonian Corals in the Gulf of Alaska J. L. Freese

Symposium Abstract: Effects of Fishing on Organic Carbon Content of Sand Habitats on Georges Bank V. G. Guida, A. Paulson, P. C. Valentine, and L. Arlen

Symposium Abstract: A Before-After-Control-Impact Study of the Sea Scallop Fishing Grounds of Georges Bank K. D. E. Stokesbury and B. Harris

Symposium Abstract: Impacts of Scallop Dredging on Marine Bottom Complexity and Juvenile Fish Habitat F. Hartog, P. Archambault, and L. Fortier

Symposium Abstract: Community and Life History Divergence of Colonial Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from Heavily Trawled Scallop Grounds in the Bay of Fundy, Eastern Canada L. M. Henry

Symposium Abstract: Analyzing the Effects of Trap Fishing in Coral Reef Habitats: Methods and Preliminary Results R. L. Hill, P. F. Sheridan, R. S. Appledoorn, T. R. Matthews, and K. R. Uwate

Symposium Abstract: A Comparison of Habitat Structure in Fished and Unfished, Mobile and Immobile Sand Habitats on Georges Bank (Northwest Atlantic) J. B. Lindholm, P. J. Auster, and P. Valentine

Symposium Abstract: Changes in the Benthic Invertebrate Assemblage following the Establishment of a Protected Area, the “Plaice Box” G. J. Piet, J. A. Craeymeersch, and A. D. Rijnsdorp

Symposium Abstract: The Effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas on Fish and Benthic Fauna: The Georges Bank Closed Area I Example R. Reid, F. Almeida, P. Valentine, L. Arlen, J. Cross, V. Guida, J. Link, D. McMillan, S. Muraski, D. Packer, J. Vitaliano, and A. Paulson

Symposium Abstract: Physical and Biological Effects of Shrimp Trawling on Soft Sediment Habitats in the Gulf of Maine A. W. Simpson and L. Watling

Symposium Abstract: Ecological Consequences of Lost Habitat Structure for Commercially Significant Flatfishes: Habitat Choice and Vulnerability to Predators A. W. Stoner, C. L. Ryer, and R. A. McConnaughey

Symposium Abstract: Bottom Trawling Effects on Cerianthid Burrowing Anemone Aggregations and Acadian Redfish Habitats in Mud to Muddy Gravel Seabeds of the Stellwagon Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region, Gilf of Maine (Northwest Atlantic) P. C. Valentine, J. B. Lindholm, and P. J. Auster

Symposium Abstract: Why Fishing Gear Impact Studies Don’t Tell Us What We Need to Know L. Watling and C. Skinder

Symposium Abstract: Reduction of Species Diversity in a Cobble Habitat Subject to Long-Term Fishing Activity L. Watling and A. Pugh

Symposium Abstract: Ecological Footprints of Scotian Shelf Groundfish Fisheries K. C. T. Zwanenburg, M. Showell, and S. Wilson

Comparison of Effects of Fishing with Effects of Natural Events and Non-Fishing Anthropogenic Impacts on Benthic Habitat

Comparison of Effects of Fishing with Effects of Natural Events and Non-Fishing Anthropogenic Impacts on Benthic Habitats Hans J. Lindeboom

Extrapolating Extinctions and Extirpations: Searching for a Pre-Fishing State of the Benthos Leonie A. Robinson and Chris L. J. Frid

Symposium Abstract: Using Side-Scan Sonar to Assess the Impact and Persistence of Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbance to Low-Relief Oyster Habitats in Coastal Louisiana Y. Allen, C. Wilson, H. Roberts, and J. Supan

Symposium Abstract: Survey of Fishing Gear and Fiber Optics Cable Impacts to Benthic Habitats in the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary M. S. Brancato and C. E. Bowlby

Symposium Abstract: Shrimp and Crab Trawling Impacts on Estuarine Soft-Bottom Organisims L. B. Cahoon, M. H. Posey, W. H. Daniels, and T. D. Alphin

Symposium Abstract: Did Bottom Trawling in Bristol Bay’s Red King Crab Brood-Stock Refuge Contribute to the Collapse of Alaska’s Most Valuable Fishery? C. Braxton Dew and Rorbert A. McConnaughey

Symposium Abstract: Comparative Evaluation of Natural and Trawling Sediment Disturbance via Short-Lived Radionuclides, in situ Monitors and Remote Sensing Techniques in the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina J. E. Frank, D. R. Corbett, T. West, L. Clough, and W. Calfee

Symposium Abstract: Fishing and Environmental Disturbance Indicators in a Shrimp Fishing Ground at the Mexican Central Pacific E. Godinez-Dominguez, J. Freire, and G. Gonzalez-Sanson

Symposium Abstract: Benthic Perturbations from Walrus Foraging: Are They Similar to Trawling? C. V. Jay, L. C. Huff, and R. A. McConnaughey

Symposium Abstract: Controversy about Trawling and Santa Maria Key’s Causeway Effects on Seagrass A. Quiros Espinosa, M. E. Perdomo López, and R. Arias Barreto

Symposium Abstract: Scaling of Natural and Anthropogenic Disturbance on the New York Bight Shelf: Implications for Tilefish Communities of the Shallow Continental Slope M. C. Sullivan, R. K. Cowen, K. W. Able, and M. P. Fahay

Symposium Abstract: Impacts of Trawling and Wind Disturbance on Water Column Processes in the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina T. L. West, D. R. Corbett, L. M. Clough, M. W. Calfee, and J. E. Frank

Extrapolation of Local and Chronic Effects of Fishing and Nonfishing Events to Significant Regions and Time Scales

Spatial and Temporal Scales of Disturbance to the Seafloor: A Generalized Framework for Active Habitat Management Simon F. Thrush, Carolyn J. Lundquist, and Judi E. Hewitt

Muddy Thinking: Ecosystem-Based Management of Marine Benthos Chris L. J. Frid, Leonie A. Robinson, and Julie Bremner

Linking Fine-Scale Groundfish Distributions with Large-Scale Seafloor Maps: Issues and Challenges of Combining Biological and Geological Data Tara J. Anderson, Mary M. Yoklavich, and Stephen L. Eittreim

Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Bottom Trawling off Alaska: Consideration of Overlapping Effort When Evaluating the Effects of Fishing on Habitat Craig S. Rose and Elaina M. Jorgensen

Hydraulic Clam Dredge Effects on Benthic Habitat off the Northeastern United States David H. Wallace and Thomas B. Hoff

Symposium Abstract: The Spatial Extent and Nature of Mobile Bottom Fishing Methods within the New Zealand EEZ, 1989–90 to 1998–99 S. J. Baird, N. W. Bagley, B. A. Wood, A. Dunn, and M. P. Beentjes

Symposium Abstract: Deepwater Trawl Fisheries Modify Benthic Community Structure in Similar Ways to Fisheries in Coastal Ecosystems M. Cryer, B. Hartill, and S. O’Shea

Symposium Abstract: Detecting the Effects of Fishing on Seabed Community Diversity: Importance of Scale and Sample Size M. J. Kaiser

Symposium Abstract: Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Trawling Activity in the Canadian Atlantic and Pacific D. W. Kulka and D. A. Pitcher

Symposium Abstract: A GIS Routine for Assessing Designs that Sample an Area of Fish or Lobster Traps G. A. Matthews, R. L. Hill, and P. F. Sheridan

Symposium Abstract: Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) in Alaska: Issues in Consistency and Efficiency When Using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to Evaluate Effects to EFH R. F. Reuter, C. C. Coon, J. V. Olson, and M. Eagleton

Symposium Abstract: Spatial Distribution of Fishing Activity for Principal Commercial Fishing Gears Used in the Northeast Region of the United States, 1995–2000 D. K. Stevenson

Symposium Abstract: Structure and Use of a Continental Slope Seascape: Insights for the Fishing Industry and Marine Resource Managers A. Williams, B. Barker, R. J. Kloser, N. J. Bax, and A. J. Butler

Social and Economic Issues and Effects

Perspectives on an Ethic toward the Sea Stephen R. Kellert

Getting to the Bottom of It: Bringing Social Science into Benthic Habitat Management Bonnie J. McCay

Place Matters: Spatial Tools for Assessing the Socioeconomic Implications of Marine Resource Management Measures on the Pacific Coast of the United States Astrid J. Scholz, Mike Mertens, Debra Sohm, Charles Steinback, and Marlene Bellman

When Do Marine Protected Areas Pay? An Analysis of Stylized Fisheries Harold F. Upton and Jon G. Sutinen

Symposium Abstract: Development of a West Coast Cooperative Research Program, Working Together toward Better Information J. Bloesser

Symposium Abstract: Promoting Environmental Awareness and Developing Conservation Harvesting Technology for the Fishing Industry G. Brothers

Symposium Abstract: Occupational Endurance and Contested Resources: Managing the Cultural and Economic Tensions of Lake Michigan’s Commercal Fishery M. J. Chiarappa

Symposium Abstract: Building a Database for Benthic Fisheries Using Tourist Income G. C. Lane

Symposium Abstract: Impacts of Marine Reserves: How Fishermen Behavior Matters J. E. Wilen

Determinations of “To the Extent Practicable” Phrase in U.S. Law and Other Legal Issues Concerning Fishing Effects

Symposium Abstract: The Legal Requirement to Address Fishing Effects on Essential Fish Habitat: Thresholds, Qualifiers, and the Burden of Proof A. Rieser

Minimizing the Adverse Effects of Fishing on Benthic Habitats: Alternate Fishing Techniques and Policies

Impacts of Fishing Activities on Benthic Habitat and Carrying Capacity: Approaches to Assessing and Managing Risk Michael J. Fogarty

An Alternative Paradigm for the Conservation of Fish Habitat Based on Vulnerability, Risk, and Availability Applied to the Continental Shelf of the Northwestern Atlantic Joseph DeAlteris

Habitat and Fish Populations in the Deep-Sea Oculina Coral Ecosystem of the Western Atlantic Christopher C. Koenig, Andrew N. Shepard, John K. Reed, Felicia C. Coleman, Sandra D. Brooke, John Brusher, and Kathryn M. Scanlon

The Impact of Demersal Trawling on Northeast Atlantic Deepwater Coral Habitats: The Case of the Darwin Mounds, United Kingdom A. J. Wheeler, B. J. Bett, D. S. M. Billett, D. G. Masson, and D. Mayor

Fishing Impacts on Irish Deepwater Coral Reefs: Making a Case for Coral Conservation Anthony J. Grehan, Vikram Unnithan, Karine Olu-Le Roy, and Jan Opderbecke

Symposium Abstract: Biological and Socio-Economic Implications of a Limited-Access Fishery Management System* R. E. Blyth, M. J. Kaiser, G. Edwards-Jones, and P. J. B. Hart

Symposium Abstract: Results of a Workshop on the Effects of Fishing Gear on Benthic Habitats off the Northeastern United States L. A. Chiarella, D. K. Stevenson, C. D. Stephan, R. N. Reid, J. E. McCarthy, M. W. Pentony, T. B. Hoff, C. D. Selberg, and K. A. Johnson

Symposium Abstract: Changes in the Epibenthos Assemblages of the North Sea following the Establishment of a Protected Area, the “Plaice Box” J. A. Craeymeersch and G. J. Piet

Symposium Abstract: Fishing for Shellfish in an Internationally Important Nature Reserve: Do Current Policies Achieve Their Objectives? B. J. Ens, A. C. Smaal, and J. De Vlas

Symposium Abstract: Developing a Fisheries Ecosystem Plan for the North Sea C. L. J. Frid, C. L. Scott, M. F. Borges, N. Daan, T. S. Gray, J. Hatchard, L. Hill, O. A. L. Paramor, G. J. Piet, S. A. Ragnarsson, W. Silvert, and L. Taylor

Symposium Abstract: The Ocean Habitat Protection Act: Overdue Protection for Structurally Complex Seafloor Habitats H. Gillelan

Symposium Abstract: Reducing Seabed Contact of Bottom Trawls P. He

Symposium Abstract: Rapid Build-Up of Fish Biomass, but Still Declining Coral Reefs: Why a Marine Fishery Designation Is Not Enough for the Protection of Reef Epibenthic Communities E. A. Hernández-Delgado and A. M. Sabat

Symposium Abstract: Using Ideal Free Distribution Theory to Identify Potential Protected Areas H. Hinz, M. J. Kaiser, M. Bergmann, and S. I. Rogers

Symposium Abstract: The Path towards Ecologically Sustainable Fisheries: A Case Study in the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area D. Huber

Symposium Abstract: Monitoring Changes in the Fully Protected Zones of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary B. D. Keller

Symposium Abstract: Identification and Evaluation of Indicators for Environmental Performance of European Marine Fisheries L.-H. Larsen, A. Zenetos, and N. Streftaris

Symposium Abstract: Decision Framework for Describing and Identifying EFH, Mitigating Fishing Impacts, and Designating HAPC in Federal Fishery Management Plans G. B. Parkes, H. B. Lovett, and R. J. Trumble

Symposium Abstract: The Characteristics and Function of Commercial Fishing Gears: How These Relate to Their Effects on Seafloor Habitats and the Pursuit of Ways to Minimize Effects C. S. Rose

Symposium Abstract: Long-Term, Large-Scale Biological Surveys: A Necessary Component of Fishery and Ecosystem Management C. Syms

Symposium Abstract: Approach to Evaluating Fishing Effects on EFH off Alaska D. Witherell and C. Coon

What Next? What Have We Learned? What More Do We Need to Know? What Should We Act on Right Now?

Moderated Panel and Open Discussion

Index