The AFS scientists tackled a diversity of effects from anthropogenic eutrophication on U.S. fish and fisheries. Although several intertwining factors were discussed in this symposium, it was clear that we are only beginning to scratch the surface of this complex issue. This well-attended symposium began with a thought-provoking keynote that explored if the northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem should be called the “fertile fisheries crescent” as opposed to the “dead zone,” based on its sustained high productivity in spite of the hypoxic area. A major theme from this and many other presentations was that elucidating the trade-offs from eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems continues to be difficult and is not always straightforward. Researchers utilized a variety of new tools and experimental approaches to resolve these impacts, and there were several common threads related to where this discipline is headed. For instance, evaluating the impacts of hypoxia, acidification, harmful algal blooms, or other stressors has largely shifted from traditional toxicological approaches to a focus on sublethal or behavioral effects to fish using realistic exposure periods and innovative experimental designs. Overall, scientists agreed that there is an urgent need for (1) more research on these impacts and (2) better integration into ecosystem modeling. — Konstantine J. Rountos, SoMAS Stony Brook University, k[email protected] Read the symposium abstracts here.