Planning and Standard Operating Procedures for the Use of Rotenone in Fish Management: Rotenone SOP Manual, 2nd Edition
3 Biological Sampling and Monitoring
Biological monitoring of non-target organisms is not a label requirement, but it may be a Pesticide General Discharge (i.e., NPDES) Permit requirement. Monitoring can provide an understanding of the impacts of rotenone on non-target organisms, the time needed for recovery, and in an adaptive management fashion, can help inform future treatments to minimize impacts. Moreover, the strategy of minimizing non-target impacts is consistent with the recognized need for rotenone stewardship (Section 1.8).
The before-after-control-impact (BACI) sample design (Stewart-Owen et al. 1986) is well suited to detecting changes due to piscicide treatments. Through the establishment of control site(s) and sampling before and after the treatment, it is possible to distinguish natural variation from treatment impacts. If deactivation with KMnO4 is part of the project, then Treatment Areas and Deactivation Areas should be considered separate “impact” areas and should be sampled independently. For control sites to accurately portray baseline conditions they must be carefully selected to match habitat of the impact areas and be exposed to similar weather and flow conditions. Parker and Wiens (2005) give a good summary of the issues to consider when designing a sampling scheme, including single versus multiple year sampling, and the appropriate timescale of sampling as dictated by spatial and temporal dynamic equilibria of populations.