Our rationale for the development of this book was simple but twofold. First, there are numerous statistics reference texts available for biostatistical analyses. Our intent was not to repeat those efforts but to take a more functional approach. Rather than supply another test-oriented book (e.g., analysis of variance or multiple regression) with fisheries examples, the major fisheries data types dictated the development and presentation of statistical approaches. Secondarily, this book provides the profession with a frame of reference to encourage appropriate sample design, analysis, and interpretation of freshwater fisheries data. We narrowed the scope of the book to freshwater data types because we believed by including marine analytical methods the book would become excessively cumbersome. Although there is much overlap in freshwater and marine analytical methods, there are inherent differences with regard to research problems and data collection.