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Proceedings of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium

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Product Description

S. D. Rice, R. B. Spies, D. A. Wolfe, and B. A. Wright, editors

931 pages

Published by American Fisheries Society, 1996

Summary

Symposium 18: Proceedings of the “Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Symposium” held at Anchorage, Alaska, February 2-5, 1993

The March 24, 1989 oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska caused by the Exxon Valdez was one of those singular events in history that changes lives. The supertanker ran aground and spilled approximately 40 million liters of crude oil, which subsequently was dispersed over a wide area of the Gulf of Alaska. The authors of this book put their regular jobs on hold as the enormous effort was mounted to determine, document, and attempt to understand the impacts of the spill on the valuable natural resources of the sound and surrounding areas.

The damage assessment studies presented in this proceedings of the February 1993 symposium ¾from population census work to process-oriented ecological studies¾set the groundwork for movement into restoration programs. This volume includes 61 papers representing the major studies presented at the symposium and comprises the most comprehensive collection of scientific papers published to date on the oil spill. The overriding purpose of the proceedings is to provide a lasting record of the unprecedented effort on behalf of the governments to determine the extent and nature of injuries caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

Table of Contents

Preface

INTRODUCTION

The Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on the Alaskan Coastal Environment R. B. Spies, S. D. Rice, D. A. Wolfe, and B. A. Wright

FATE AND TOXICITY

Chemical Sampling and Analysis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Near-Surface Seawater of Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill J. W. Short and P. M. Harris

Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Caged Mussels Deployed in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill J. W. Short and P. M. Harris

Nearshore Transport of Hydrocarbons and Sediments after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill J. W. Short, D. M. Sale, and J. C. Gibeaut

Contamination of Intertidal and Subtidal Sediments by Oil from the Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound C. E. O’Clair, J. W. Short, and S. D. Rice

Patterns of Microbial Activity in Oiled and Unoiled Sediments in Prince William Sound J. F. Braddock, J. E. Lindstrom, T. R. Yeager, B. T. Rasley, and E. J. Brown

Tracking Exxon Valdez Oil from Beach to Deepwater Sediments of Prince William Sound, Alaska P. R. Carlson and K. A. Kvenvolden

Toxicity of Intertidal and Subtidal Sediments Contaminated by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill D. A. Wolfe, M. M. Krahn, E. Casillas, S. Sol, T. A. Thompson, J. Lunz, and K. J. Scott

Analytical Methods Used for the Analysis of Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil, Tissues, Sediments, and Seawater Collected for the Natural Resources Damage Assessment of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill J. W. Short, T. J. Jackson, M. L. Larsen, and T. L. Wade

INTERTIDAL

Prespill and Postspill Concentrations of Hydrocarbons in Mussels and Sediments in Prince William Sound J. W. Short and M. M. Babcock

Intertidal and Supratidal Site Selection Using a Geographical Information System K. Sundberg, L. Deysher, and L. McDonald

Coastal Habitat Injury Assessment: Intertidal Communities and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill M. S. Stekoll, L. Deysher, R. C. Highsmith, S. M. Saupe, Z. Guo, W. P. Erickson, L. McDonald, and D. Strickland

Population Response of the Brown Alga Fucus gardneri and Other Algae in Herring Bay, Prince William Sound, to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill P. G. van Tamelen and M. S. Stekoll

Impact of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Intertidal Biota R. C. Highsmith, T. L. Rucker, M. S. Stekoll, S. M. Saupe, M. R. Lindeberg, R. N. Jenne, and W. P. Erickson

Influence of Residual and Applied Oil on Intertidal Algal Recruitment P. B. Duncan and A. J. Hooten

Impacts on Selected Intertidal Invertebrates in Herring Bay, Prince William Sound, after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill A. J. Hooten and R. C. Highsmith

Meiofaunal Recolonization Experiment with Oiled Sediments J. W. Fleeger, T. C. Shirley, M. G. Carls, and M. A. Todaro

Persistence of Oiling in Mussel Beds Three and Four Years after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill M. M. Babcock, G. V. Irvine, P. M. Harris, J. A. Cusick, and S. D. Rice

Within-Bed Distribution of Exxon Valdez Crude Oil in Prince William Sound Blue Mussels and Underlying Sediments P. M. Harris, S. D. Rice, M. M. Babcock, and C. C. Brodersen

TREATMENT EFFECTS

Exxon Valdez Shoreline Treatment and Operations: Implications for Response, Assessment, Monitoring, and Research A. J. Mearns

Short-Term Effects of Several Types of Shoreline Treatment on Rocky Intertidal Biota in Prince William Sound D. C. Lees, J. P. Houghton, and W. B. Driskell

Growth and Loss of Tagged Individuals of the Predatory Snail Nucella lamellosa in Areas within the Influence of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Prince William Sound T. A. Ebert and D. C. Lees

Recovery of Prince William Sound Intertidal Infauna from Exxon Valdez Oiling and Shoreline Treatments, 1989 through 1992 W. B. Driskell, A. K. Fukuyama, J. P. Houghton, D. C. Lees, A. J. Mearns, and G. Shigenaka

Recovery of Prince William Sound Intertidal Epibiota from Exxon Valdez Oiling and Shoreline Treatments, 1989 through 1992 J. P. Houghton, D. C. Lees, W. B. Driskell, S. C. Lindstrom, and A. J. Mearns

SUBTIDAL

Kelps and Oil: The Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Subtidal Algae T. A. Dean, M. S. Stekoll, and R. O. Smith

Injury to Epibenthic Invertebrates Resulting from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill T. A. Dean, S. C. Jewett, D. R. Laur, and R. O. Smith

Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Benthic Invertebrates in an Oxygen-Deficient Embayment in Prince William Sound, Alaska S. C. Jewett, T. A. Dean, and D. R. Laur

HERRING

Injury to the Early Life History Stages of Pacific Herring in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill E. D. Brown, T. T. Baker, J. E. Hose, R. M. Kocan, G. D. Marty, M. D. McGurk, B. L. Norcross, and J. Short

Distribution and Abundance of Larval Fishes in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 1989 after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill B. L. Norcross and M. Frandsen

SALMON

A Life History Approach to Estimating Damage to Prince William Sound Pink Salmon Caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill H. J. Geiger, B. G. Bue, S. Sharr, A. C. Wertheimer, and T. M. Willette

Run Construction of the Wild Pink Salmon Fishery in Prince William Sound, 1990-1991 W. D. Templin, J. S. Collie, and T. J. Quinn, II

Cytochrome P-450 Induction and Histopathology in Preemergent Pink Salmon from Oiled Spawning Sites in Prince William Sound M. Wiedmer, M. J. Fink, J. J. Stegeman, R. Smolowitz, G. D. Marty, and D. E. Hinton

Abundance and Growth of Juvenile Pink Salmon in Oiled and Non-Oiled Locations of Western Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill A. C. Wertheimer and A. G. Celewycz

Impacts of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on the Migration, Growth, and Survival of Juvenile Pink Salmon in Prince William Sound M. Willette

Harpacticoid Copepod Abundance and Population Structure in Prince William Sound, One Year after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill A. C. Wertheimer, N. J. Bax, A. G. Celewycz, M. G. Carls, and J. H. Landingham

Prey Availability to Juvenile Salmon after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill A. G. Celewycz and A. C. Wertheimer

Diets of Juvenile Pink and Chum Salmon in Oiled and Non-Oiled Nearshore Habitats in Prince William Sound, 1989 and 1990 M. V. Sturdevant, A. C. Wertheimer, and J. L. Lum

Contamination of Juvenile Pink and Chum Salmon by Hydrocarbons in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill M. G. Carls, A. C. Wertheimer, J. W. Short, R. M. Smolowitz, and J. J. Stegeman

Growth, Feeding, and Survival of Pink Salmon Fry Exposed to Food Contaminated with Crude Oil M. G. Carls, L. Holland, M. Larsen, J. L. Lum, D. G. Mortensen, S. Y. Wang, and A. C. Wertheimer

Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Pink Salmon Embryos and Preemergent Fry B. G. Bue, S. Sharr, S. D. Moffitt, and A. K. Craig

Kenai River Sockeye Salmon: an Assessment of Overescapements as a Cause of the Decline D. C. Schmidt, K. E. Tarbox, B. E. King, L. K. Brannian, G. B. Kyle, and S. R. Carlson

OTHER FISH

Detecting Population Impacts from Oil Spills: A Comparison of Methodologies R. Hilborn

Impact of Oil Spilled from the Exxon Valdez on Survival and Growth of Dolly Varden and Cutthroat Trout in Prince William Sound K. R. Hepler, P. A. Hanse, and D. R. Bernard

Coastal Habitat Studies: The Effect of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Shallow Subtidal Fishes in Prince William Sound D. Laur and L. Haldorson

Petroleum Exposure and Associated Biochemical Effects in Subtidal Fish after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill T. K. Collier, C. A. Krone, M. M. Krahn, J. E. Stein, S.-L. Chan, and U. Varanasi

BIRDS

Total Direct Mortality of Seabirds from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill R. G. Ford, M. L. Bonnell, D. H. Varoujean, G. W. Page, H. R. Carter, B. E. Sharp, D. Heinemann, and J. L. Casey

How Many Seabirds Were Killed by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill? J. F. Piatt and R. G. Ford

Response of Common Murres to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and Long-Term Changes in the Gulf of Alaska Marine Ecosystem J. F. Piatt and P. Anderson

Size and Productivity of Black-Legged Kittiwake Colonies in Prince William Sound before and after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill D. B. Irons

Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on the Black Oystercatcher B. E. Sharp, M. Cody, and R. Turner

Population, Reproduction, and Foraging of Pigeon Guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill K. L. Oakley and K. J. Kuletz

Marbled Murrelet Abundance and Breeding Activity at Naked Island, Prince William Sound, and Kachemak Bay, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill K. J. Kuletz

Bald Eagle Productivity in South-Central Alaska in 1989 and 1990 after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill J. A. Bernatowicz, P. F. Schempf, and T. D. Bowman

MAMMALS

Overview of Studies to Determine Injury Caused by the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill to Marine Mammals T. R. Loughlin, B. E. Ballachey, and B. A. Wright

Acute Phase Proteins and Cytokines in Alaskan Mammals as Markers of Chronic Exposure to Environmental Pollutants L. K. Duffy, R. T. Bowyer, J. W. Testa, and J. B. Faro

ARCHAEOLOGY

Cultural Resources and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: An Overview J. E. Bittner

SUBSISTENCE

Subsistence Uses of Fish and Wildlife before and after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill J. A. Fall and L. J. Field

Hazard and Risk Assessment of Crude Oil Contaminants in Subsistence Seafood Samples from Prince William Sound M. Bolger, S. H. Henry, and C. D. Carrington

Survey of Alaskan Subsistence Invertebrate Seafoods Collected in 1989-1991 to Determine Exposure to Oil Spilled from the Exxon Valdez D. W. Brown, D. G. Burrows, C. A. Sloan, R. W. Pearce, S. M. Pierce, J. L. Bolton, K. L. Tilbury, K. L. Dana, S.-L. Chan, and U. Varanasi

Assessment of the Exposure of Subsistence Fish to Aromatic Compounds after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill T. Hom, U. Varanasi, J. E. Stein, C. A. Sloan, K. L. Tilbury, and S.-L. Chan

HUMAN IMPACTS

Psychological and Social Impacts of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and Cleanup J. C. Russell, M. A. Downs, J. S. Petterson, and L. A. Palinkas

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill and Chronic Psychological Stress J. S. Picou and D. A. Gill

AUTHOR INDEX SUBJECT INDEX